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Can Trump Be Sued for Inciting Violence at a Rally?

TrumpTrump is in hot water yet again, but this time, for something he said during one of his campaign rallies before elected into office.

On March 1, 2016, Trump held a campaign rally in Louisville, Kentucky at the Kentucky International Convention Center. Three protestors were singled out during the campaign when Trump pointed to the protestors and instructed his supporters to “Get ‘em out of here,” which he repeated several times.  The three were then physically attacked. Trump then added, “Don’t hurt ‘em. If I say ‘go get ‘em,’ I get in trouble with the press.’” The protestors sustained personal injuries by being shoved and punched by Trump supporters. They sued Trump for incitement.

Trump’s lawyers filed a motion to have the case thrown out, arguing that what he said was protected free speech under the U.S. Constitution and that he wasn’t actually speaking to the crowd that night when he instructed them to “get ‘em out of here.” The Kentucky U.S. District Judge David J. Hale was unpersuaded and allowed the case to proceed.

What is Incitement?

In laymen terms, inciting violence means a person encourages, provokes or urges violence upon another. It requires somebody to actively urge violence against particular individuals.

The main question for incitement is whether the speech in question purposely and clearly directs others to commit an act of violence against another individual. The government can only punish speech if there is a “substantial likelihood of imminent illegal activity and if the speech is directed to causing imminent illegality.”

Incitement Analysis

To analyze what is incitement, we must first look to what it isn’t. Let’s take this scenario where three protestors interrupt one of Trump’s campaign rallies. Instead of directing the crowd to “get ‘em out of here,” he asks them, “Where’s the exit?” Would that be incitement?

In that scenario, no. While his intent may have been to encourage his supporters to find the exit and kick the protestors out, he would’ve simply asked a harmless question about the location of the exit. Since he wouldn’t have directed or urged them to act violently, incitement wouldn’t be found.

Let’s take the same scenario. What if Trump not only told his supporters to “get [the protestors] out of here,” but he said to a specific group of people in the crowd, “Kick [the protestors] in the stomach” and “Punch them in the face on the way out!” That would be a clear example of inciting violence. In this hypothetical, he would have told specific people in the crowd to act violently against the protestors.

Why the Judge Didn’t Dismiss the Case

Trump’s attorneys cited two main arguments for why the case should’ve been dismissed: Trump’s speech was protected free speech, and that he never directed the crowd to become violent. He argued that his insistence to “get ‘em out of here” was directed to his security guards. Judge Hale didn’t buy it.

Judge Hale looked at numerous Trump campaign speeches that were submitted into evidence by plaintiffs to demonstrate a pattern of Trump asking his audience to act violently.  Among the examples were pleas by Trump in a 2015 Alabama campaign rally that a protestor “maybe…should have been roughed up”  and a 2016 rally in Iowa when Trump instructed the crowd to “knock the crap out of” anyone getting ready to throw a tomato. In one rally in Michigan, he asked a protestor to be removed and urged the crowd not to hurt him, but then added, “If you do, I’ll defend you in court. Don’t worry about it.” This is our President, people.

Will Incitement be Found?

Procedurally, Judge Hale’s decision can be reversed on appeal. Trump’s attorneys would have to convince the appellate judge that Trump was not directing the speech at his campaign crowd. While that certainly may be true, Trump has teetered on the edge of encouraging violence at his rallies throughout his campaign. A judge could easily adopt Judge Hale’s thinking and reject Trump’s defense.

Whether incitement will ultimately be found would require a detailed analysis of the facts of this particular case. Either way, chances are this is not the last time we will see Trump in court for something he did or said during his presidency.

United Faces a Beating… in Court

Over the last week, the news (and many videos) of one Dr. David Dao being brutally attacked by Aviation Security Officers and dragged from his legally purchased seat on United Flight 3411 has been absolutely everywhere.  The incident has caused a firestorm of public outrage against United.

For those who have not seen the videos or read the news, passengers of Flight 3411 from Chicago to Louisville were told before boarding that the flight had been overbooked (United had sold more tickets to the flight than there were seats on the plane) and asked for volunteers to take $400 and a hotel stay to take a flight the following day.  This was apparently resolved, and the passengers were allowed to board the plane.  However, after the flight was boarded, United decided that it wanted four seats to fly employees to Louisville for their work on a flight the following day–it should be noted that the drive to Louisville is just over four hours.  United again requested volunteers to get off the plane, then when nobody was willing upped their offer to $800.  However, there was still nobody willing to get off.   Finally, United had a computer randomly select people to be kicked off the plane.  Dr. Dao was one member of the second couple to be randomly selected.

Dr. Dao refused to get off the plane and security was called to remove him–and remove him they did.  The footage from the many recordings made by other passengers on the flight show Dr. Dao’s head being slammed into the armrest next to him before he is pulled from his seat and, as onlookers scream in horror, his motionless form is dragged down the aisle of the plane–mouth bleeding, glasses askew, and shirt riding up his belly.  After this happened, the passengers were all removed from the plane so United employees could clean up the blood before the plane took off.

Since then, Dr. Dao has retained attorneys and has filed a motion to preserve evidence from the incident for a future lawsuit.  His attorneys report that he suffered a concussion, lost two front teeth, had his nose broken, and his sinuses were so badly damaged that he will require reconstructive surgery.

So the question is, how the heck did this happen in the first place?  The answer may surprise you, airlines have an enormous amount of leeway in a post-9/11 world.  So, with this in mind, let’s look at the law here and Dr. Dao’s chances in his upcoming lawsuit.

Airlines Overbooking and Booting Paying Customers

As anybody who’s flown in the last few years can attest, overbooking flights is an extremely common practice nowadays.  The heartbreak and annoyance of buying a ticket months in advance then being told that an airline sold more tickets than there were seats happens all the time-but it rarely escalates as far as it did in this case.

Almost every major airline currently intentionally overbooks the majority of its flights for the simple reason that it usually makes them more money than it loses them–despite how awful that is from a customer service standpoint.  The reason for this is not only the careful algorithms these airlines apply to overselling their flights, but also because these airlines are protected under both the contract you agree to and-believe it or not-federal law.

First and foremost, when you buy a ticket you are essentially agreeing to a contract with the airlines.  You best believe this contract gives the airlines enormous leeway to, among many other things, boot you off a plane.

United’s contract, a behemoth at just a bit over 37,000 words long, specifically says that when a flight is oversold passengers may be “denied boarding involuntarily.”  Overbooked is defined in their contract as when there are more passengers with valid confirmed tickets than seats before check-in time.  “Passenger” is defined as any non-crew person holding a confirmed registration.  The contract also gives them the right to boot disruptive or violent passengers–or to boot passengers for any number of other reasons.

When you buy an airplane ticket, you’re usually agreeing to something like this–United or no.  In fact, almost every major airline–with the notable exceptions of JetBlue and Virgin America–have some sort of provision allowing them to “deny boarding involuntarily.”

Code of Federal Regulations § 250.5–titled “Amount of denied boarding compensation for passengers denied boarding involuntarily”–not only allows this but substantially limits the amount an airline needs to pay out to a booted customer.  This makes overbooking even more appealing to airlines.  All the provisions require is that any involuntarily booted passenger be provided notice in writing (see the contract you totally read when you bought the ticket) and they are compensated.  However, compensation is limited to a maximum of 200% of the one way value of the ticket ($675 maximum) if the airline offers alternative transportation and 400% ($1,350 maximum) if they don’t.  If the alternative transportation is less than an hour away–they don’t have to give you anything.  They can even offer you vouchers for their own flights in lieu of cash or check in some situations–read most situations.

This is pretty cheap for the rare occasion where the airlines actually have to pay out, so it’s no surprise they aren’t shy about overbooking.  Since the United incident occurred, the Department of Transportation has said that they are reviewing whether overbooking rules were followed here–but they doubled down on the legality of bumping passengers and are not reviewing the rule in place.

UnitedDr. Dao’s Lawsuit

So, United can bump people off planes.  They can even do it involuntarily.  However, you’ll notice that there are a few issues in their contract that are definitely going to come up in any lawsuit with Dr. Dao.

First, they are allowed to boot passengers where a plane is overbooked–but was the plane overbooked by their own definition?  There were the exact same number of paying customers as there were seats, United just wanted to jam in four of its employees.  The question is, were these employees passengers?  If they count as crew they definitely were not.  What’s more, if they didn’t have a boarding pass at time of check-in it’s unlikely they’d count as a passenger.  If the flight wasn’t overbooked, then United didn’t have the right to boot Dr. Dao in the first place.  If Dr. Dao was being disruptive or belligerent, United may still have grounds under their contract to remove him from the plane.  However, despite the police report describing him as “irate” the videos and passenger accounts put him calmly on the phone with what turned out to be his attorney.  There is some question over the mere act of refusing to disembark from the plane was sufficient to give United grounds under their contract to remove Dr. Dao.

This being said, if remove Dr. Dao from the plane was all United did this would be much less of a media explosion–the Aviation Security Officers seriously injured Dr. Dao.  The contract you sign with United absolutely does not give them the right to assault, batter, or intentionally inflict emotional distress upon a passenger.    These are all civil torts which could Dr. Dao could use as a cause of action against United.

However, even these actions might have a bit of a hiccup.  The question would become whether the Aviation Secutity Officers acted as agents of the airline or in their own independent capacity as police officers.  If the officers were not acting as agents of the airline-or it can found that the airline sanctioned them to use such force in removing Dr. Dao-then the airline is unlikely to be held liable for the actions of their officers.

In this case, Dr. Dao may need to sue the police department of Chicago itself.  One would expect that, if and when a lawsuit finally does come there would be lawsuits target both United and the police department.  Police acting in their official capacity enjoy a certain level of immunity to lawsuits.  However, if it can be shown that the use of force was excessive here–an analysis made by looking at, among other things, standard police procedure and the level of threat posed by a suspect–Dr. Dao may still be able to bring a case.

Since the incident, the three Aviation Security Officers who attacked Dr. Dao have been placed on paid leave.  However, it is worth noting that the general procedure for the security officers is to–where there is no imminent threat–contain the situation until the officers from the Chicago Police Department arrive.  In fact, according to a deputy commissioner overseeing airport security, the protocol for Aviation Security Officers is apparently to not even go on the plane if it’s a customer service issue.  While at least one of the Aviation Security Officers wore a jacket reading “police,” they are not actual police officers and the practice of wearing such a jacket was banned a few months back.

All of this points to excessive force, a situation unnecessarily escalated in violation of standard protocol.  This would strengthen any case brought by Dr. Dao.

Almost Certain to Settle

You can see that, while Dr. Dao has several causes of action with merit, none of them are without their issues.  However, it’s very unlikely to reach that point.  This whole situation has been a PR nightmare for United and they have been judged in the court of public opinion–this is not the sort of case they are likely to want to bring before a jury.  Dollars to donuts says a settlement will be forthcoming.

Since the video hit the internet, United lost around a billion dollars in value before recovering to a mere quarter of a billion loss.  The CEO of United, Oscar Munoz, has been all over the news apologizing for the incident, although he has been doing a fairly poor job of it–first describing Dr. Dao’s beating as a “re-accomodation,” then telling United employees he thinks they did nothing wrong and calling Dr. Dao “belligerent”, then finally making an unequivocal apology.  He’s since been on television promising that United would never again let law enforcement remove a “booked, paid, seated passenger”–although he had no promises regarding overbooking in general.  Mr. Munoz has also publically stated that Dr. Dao cannot be at fault for what happened and should not have been treated like he was.  These are not the responses of somebody looking to go the long haul on a lawsuit with Dr. Dao.  I would expect a settlement to hit the news sooner rather than later.

Anti-Seizure Medication: What Your Doctor Might Not Have Told You

Many people in the United States suffer from epilepsy and other disorders that can cause seizures and this affects every aspect of their lives. From not having the legal ability to drive a car to the simple fact that a seizure can often happen without warning, those who suffer from these crippling disorders depend on a variety of medications to keep their seizures under control.

Physicians who specialize in or are familiar with the nature of seizures and their causes treat their patients with the best medications available that are right for them. As is the norm, new medications arrive to the consumer market all the time and some of these new drugs may find their way into a seizure sufferer’s hands.

Again, most of these drugs work anti-seizure medicationwell and allow seizure patients to lead healthy and more normal lives. However, as with most drugs, side effects are always a risk and some of the risks associated with anti-seizure medications can be very serious.

If you’re taking an anti-seizure medication these are a few things you should know about their side effects and learn more about how to talk to your doctor about any concerns you have.

Types of Seizures

Regardless of the underlying cause seizures are classified by type. These types vary due the patient’s condition, age, and even menstrual cycle. These are some of the types of seizures that healthcare experts have classified.

  • Absence seizures. These are generally mild and consist of short periods of “spacing out.” These were previously called petit mal seizures.
  • Atonic seizures. These are brief seizures that result in a loss of muscle tension. They rarely last longer than 15 seconds.
  • Catamenial seizures. These seizures occur at varying times during a woman’s menstrual cycle and are generally hormone related.
  • Dravet Syndrome. This syndrome begins in the first year of an infant’s life and the seizures increase in frequency as the child ages.
  • Focal seizure. These seizures are among the most unpredictable as the seizure can begin in any part of the brain resulting in differing levels of seizure activity.
  • Myoclonic seizures. These seizures involve brief shaking or jerking of the muscles. The patient is generally conscious during this type of seizure.
  • Tonic Clonic seizure. Previously called a grand mal seizure, a tonic clonic seizure involves the shaking or jerking of the entire body and the patient loses consciousness. These seizures can last from one to three minutes. Anything longer than five minutes is a medical emergency.

Seizure Medications and Their Side Effects

Physicians prescribe a number of different medications for seizure related disorders and one of the more popular of these medications is Dilantin (phenytoin). Dilantin works by decreasing certain activities in the brain that can result in seizures.

However, as with any drug, dilantin comes with side effects and some of them have been severe. Dilantin’s interactions with other medications can also cause life-threatening side effects. Be very clear with your doctor about any medications you are taking if you are prescribed Dilantin.

anti seizure medicationOne of the most serious concerns about Dilantin is during pregnancy. It’s a conflicting issue because discontinuing the use of the drug while pregnant can cause seizures that can be very harmful for the mother and unborn child. On the other hand, Dilantin has been known to cause some serious birth defects ranging from cleft palate to heart defects. It’s vital that you discuss this with your doctor if you are pregnant and taking Dilantin. If taking Dilantin has affected your pregnancy or baby, you may have recourse against the pharmaceutical company.

Dilantin also decreases the effectiveness of hormone-based birth control which can result in irregular periods, spotting, bleeding, and pregnancy. Talk with your doctor about alternative methods of birth control if you take Dilantin.

People with low vitamin D levels or who have osteoporosis should also take Dilantin with caution. The drug is known to contribute to bone loss and this could become more severe if thinning of the bones is already a health concern.

Dilantin has also been associated with Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Purple Glove Syndrome, both of which are skin disorders that can be fatal and need immediate medical attention if they happen.

Dilantin has been a lifesaver for many people who suffer from seizures but it has also caused many people lasting problems due to the side effects. Be sure to talk with your doctor about any side effects that you experience and if those side effects have impacted your life in a severe way you might also want to speak with an attorney. After all, you can’t be too careful when it comes to your health.


Authored by Thomas J. Henry, a renowned trial attorney who has been practicing personal injury law in Texas for more than 25 years. He has represented victims of catastrophic trucking and auto accidents, on-the-job accidents, medical malpractice claims, and many other claims across the United States.

Can a Miscarriage Be a Wrongful Death Claim?

A recent decision from the Alabama Supreme Court allows a woman to proceed forward with a wrongful death suit against her obstetrician after suffering a miscarriage.  While the decision has rocked a few boats, the Court only affirmed existing laws that allow a person to sue for the wrongful death of an unborn child.

Miscarriage Wrongful DeathLet’s Check the Facts

Two days after finding out she was pregnant, Kimberly Stinnett experienced abdominal cramping and fever.  After an evaluation that included ultrasound, an obstetrician determined that Stinnett, based on the findings from the evaluation and Stinnett’s prior medical history, was experiencing an ectopic pregnancy.  An ectopic pregnancy occurs when a fertilized egg attaches itself in a place other than inside the uterus, which makes it impossible for a fetus to develop.

The obstetrician performed a dilation and curettage, commonly referred to as a “D&C”, which is a surgical procedure used to determine whether a pregnancy is intrauterine (within the uterus) or ectopic. Stinnett testified that the obstetrician told her, as a result of that surgical procedure, the pregnancy wasn’t ectopic, but that she believed a miscarriage had taken place.  The obstetrician, however, testified that she still had a strong suspicion that the pregnancy was ectopic and therefore ordered a drug commonly used to treat ectopic pregnancy.  The drug is intended to cause the end of pregnancy and was administered to Stinnett.

Stinnett attended a follow up appointment, in which she saw her original doctor.  A follow-up ultrasound showed that Stinnett was having a failing intrauterine pregnancy, possibly as a result of the drug the previous obstetrician had given her.  Several weeks later, Stinnett suffered a miscarriage.

Stinnett brought suit against the obstetrician and claimed:

  • Medical negligence for performing the D&C and administering the drug,
  • That because her pregnancy was not ectopic, the D&C should not have been performed nor should the drug should have been administered, and
  • That the obstetrician’s actions violated the applicable standards of care and proximately caused the loss of her baby.

In addition to her medical malpractice claims, Stinnett claimed wrongful death of her unborn fetus under Alabama’s wrongful death of a minor statute.  The personal injury claims stemming from the medical malpractice suit were allowed to go forward, but the lower court dismissed the wrongful death portion of the suit.  Stinnett appealed.

Why Did the Alabama Supreme Court Allow the Wrongful Death Claim to Move Forward?

Among other arguments, the obstetrician’s main argument rested on the idea that the wrongful death of a minor statute didn’t apply to her due to an exemption within another Alabama statute limiting criminal liability for licensed physicians who, through mistake or unintentional error, caused the death of a previable fetus.  The argument rested on the idea that if criminal liability was exempted, so too should civil liability.

The lower court agreed, but the Alabama Supreme Court ruled otherwise, stating, “[I]t simply does not follow that a person not subject to criminal punishment under the Homicide Act should not face tort liability under the Wrongful Death Act”.  The high court found doing so would, essentially, defeat the purpose (to prevent homicides) of allowing wrongful-death claims based on negligence in the first place.

The court remanded the wrongful death claim back down to the lower court, which means Stinnett has a chance to argue it in front of a jury.

Will She Win?

This case can appear a bit convoluted because it involves both wrongful death, as well as medical malpractice, but they essentially coincide with each other.  Wrongful death suits are brought when a person dies due to the negligence or misconduct of another.  In order to bring a successful wrongful death cause of action, Stinnett will need to prove:

  • The death of a human being,
  • Was caused by the obstetrician’s negligence (or intent to cause harm), and
  • That Stinnett is suffering monetary injury as a result of the death of her fetus (think losing future income from a spouse).

Alabama law allows wrongful death suits on behalf of previable fetuses, so Stinnett will have no problem proving the first element; it’s the other two elements that will be harder to prove.

Medical malpractice is one circumstance a plaintiff can use to prove a wrongful death claim.  If Stinnett can prove that the obstetrician acted negligently in a way that another competent obstetrician in similar circumstances would not have acted, then she’d have a good argument for medical malpractice.

Remember when I said Stinnett filed suit for medical negligence and wrongful death?  Even though the wrongful death suit was originally dismissed, the personal injury claims proceeded forward and a jury found in favor of the obstetrician.  What does that mean?  That the doctor wasn’t liable, which implies she followed the appropriate standard of care.  If that’s the case, then Stinnett won’t have much luck proving a wrongful death claim.

The Alabama Supreme Court noted in their decision that it wasn’t clear whether the jury’s decision rested on the obstetrician’s standard of care or whether it rested on the theory that Stinnett didn’t suffer any damages.  For those reasons, Stinnett has the option to proceed forward and, if she chooses to, she’ll need to prove both negligence with respect to the standard of care and that she suffered monetary injury.

Driving With FaceTime: Apple Faces Lawsuit from Grieving Family

Talking on a hand-held cell phone while driving. Texting while driving. Both of these activities are major causes of accidents that have now been banned in most states. However, with the development of technology, a new problematic activity has emerged: engaging in FaceTime while driving. FaceTime is Apple’s video-chatting program, and it is a standard part of the latest versions of the iPhone. Not only does the program require hand interaction in the form of holding the device and interacting with the device’s interface to commence and end a FaceTime session, but it also requires visual attention because of the video aspect of the program. Since using FaceTime requires a person to both continuously look at the device and hold/physically interact with the device, using FaceTime while driving is arguably more dangerous than texting while driving and talking on a hand-held cell phone. However, using Facetime while driving is currently not a crime in any state, nor has Apple, the company behind FaceTime, taken any steps to discourage users from using it while driving. That may all change soon now that a family in Texas is suing Apple over a car accident that was caused by a driving using FaceTime.

Apple iPhone FaceTime

On Christmas Eve of 2014, Garrett Wilhelm crashed into the Modisette family’s car while engaged in a conversation using FaceTime on his iPhone 6 Plus rather than paying attention to traffic. All four members of the Modisette family suffered from serious injuries, and one for the two young daughters ended up dying from her injuries. At the scene of the accident, Mr. Wilhelm admitted to the police that he was using FaceTime when he crashed into the Modisette family’s car and the police noticed that FaceTime was still running on Mr. Wilhelm’s iPhone 6 Plus after the accident, which suggests that the use of FaceTime helped cause the accident.

Holding Apple Responsible for FaceTime’s Role

The Modisettes filed a lawsuit against Apple for the role that FaceTime played in causing the accident. They have accused Apple of being negligent in the design of FaceTime by failing to include either a warning to users alerting them to the dangers of using FaceTime while driving or a mechanism that would allow for FaceTime to become disabled when the device containing FaceTime is in a moving vehicle. What makes Apple’s failure to include either a warning or disabling mechanism even more noticeable is the fact that prior to the release of the iPhone 6 Plus, Apple was granted a patent for a electronic device mechanism that would disable certain distracting features within the electronic device, such as texting and video chatting, if the mechanism sensed that the device was traveling at or beyond a certain speed that would indicate that the device was in a vehicle.

How Can Manufacturers Be Held Responsible?

Manufacturers owe a duty to consumers to create safe products. If a product can be made safer without sacrificing any of its essential aspects, then the manufacturer is obligated to change the way that it makes the product to include the new additional safety measures. If a manufacturer keeps making the product in the same manner as before without implementing the changes to make it safer, then the manufacturer has used a defective design and is liable for any harm that may result from the product with the defective design when that product is being used in a way that is either intended by the manufacturer or reasonably foreseeable by the manufacturer.

Apple knew that iPhone owners used their iPhones while driving, including for texting and chatting purposes. In fact, that knowledge is why Apple created the mechanism for which they sought the patent, according to the background information in the company’s patent application. Since the patent application was granted in April 2014 and the iPhone 6 Plus was initially released in September 2014, Apple was in possession of a patent for a mechanism that would have disabled iPhone owners from being able to use their iPhones in a distracting manner while driving months before Mr. Wilhelm could have purchased his iPhone 6 Plus. Thus, not only was Apple aware of the current dangerous design of the iPhone in lacking a mechanism to disable certain features of the iPhone while the owner is driving, it was also aware of a way to make the iPhone with a mechanism that would disable certain features in the iPhone while the owner is driving. Despite this knowledge, Apple did not implement the safer design that would have included the mechanism when manufacturing the iPhone 6 Plus. Thus, Apple’s iPhone 6 Plus contained a design defect for which Apple is liable.

But Can Apple Really Be Liable for a Car Accident?

Since Apple is liable for the defective design of the iPhone 6 Plus, they are then liable for any harm that may result from a reasonably foreseeable use of the iPhone 6 Plus that may have been avoided if the safer design was implemented. Apple should have reasonably foreseen that Mr. Wilhelm would have been using FaceTime on his iPhone 6 Plus while driving because the company stated its awareness of drivers using cell phones while driving in the patent application. Mr. Wilhelm would likely have been unable to use FaceTime on his iPhone 6 Plus if Apple had manufactured the device with the disabling mechanism. However, since that safety mechanism was not present in Mr. Wilhelm’s iPhone 6 Plus, Mr. Wilhelm engaged in distracted driving and crashed into the Modisettes’ car. Thus, it is likely that Apple is liable for Mr. Wilhelm crashing into the Modisette’s car and the subsequent damage that resulted from the crash.

If the court does find Apple liable for the car crash involving Mr. Wilhelm and the Modisettes, then the court will likely require Apple to provide financial compensation to the Modisette family and order Apple begin implementing the safer design featuring the disabling mechanism. The compensation that the Modisettes may receive from Apple will likely include quantifiable damages such as incurred medical costs and the cost of repairing or replacing their car, as well as more speculative damages such as money for the loss of companionship due to the daughter’s death and pain and suffering. Additionally, Apple may be required to pay punitive damages, which are damages designed to punish defendants for terrible behavior, because Apple was already in possession of a patented way to make the iPhone 6 Plus safer before it was manufactured and yet chose to still manufacture the iPhone 6 Plus with the less safe design.

What Can Consumers Do to Protect Themselves?

Manufacturers should always make their products as safe as is feasible. If they fail to make products that are safe to be used as is foreseeable, then they should be held liable for causing harm to consumers. You should contact a defective products lawyer if you have been harmed by a defective product. A lawyer can assist you in talking to the maker of the defective product about compensating you for your injuries and filing a lawsuit if necessary.